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Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers 100 Years of Foundation Engineering 1910 2010 By Tom Shachtman, in Collaboration with the Partners of the Firm

2010 Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers. All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without permission in writing from Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, 14 Penn Plaza 225 West 34th Street, New York, NY 101220002 Telephone 9173399300. P

Table of Contents Foreword Prologue Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Epilogue Credits Saving the Bathtub There is No Substitute for Experience The Partners It all Starts With the Soil Soil Mechanics Laboratory Then Comes the Foundation At the Crossroads of the World If I Can Make It There... Means and Methods Bridges to Everywhere On the Waterfront From Tunnels to Dams State of the Art Applications Solutions Foundations of the

Foundation construction for the Four Seasons Hotel and Legg Mason Headquarters, Baltimore, MD. Two additional MRCE projects appear in the background The Allied Signal Baltimore Works Plant site upper left and the Harborview Development upper right.

Foreword The Partners of the Firm are pleased to publish this book celebrating the one hundred years since Daniel Moran left his position as Vice President and Chief Engineer of the Foundation Company to found the company that has become Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers. We would like to thank our Clients for allowing us to work on their projects, grand and small, to honor our past Partners, and to express our appreciation to all of our Staff, past and present, many of whom have spent their

PROLOGUE SAVING THE BATHTUB A day after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 that leveled the twin World Trade Center Towers and adjacent buildings, a crisis group gathered in the conference room of Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers office. Their mission save the bathtub. 2

The site was kept open by a 3,400foot long, 70foot deep slurry wall surrounding the western half of the World Trade Center complex, that prevented the nearby Hudson River from flooding the site. The bathtub was endangered by the Tower collapse. Conferees included representatives of New York Citys Department of Design and Construction, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the New York City Transit Authority, the New York Police and Fire Departments, displaced professional firms such as

THE BATHTUB When the twin towers collapsed as a result of the attack on September 11, 2001, the condition of the slurry wall or bathtub the watertight perimeter wall that surrounds the site and the six basement levels within it became a major focus for the recovery workers. The MRCE conference room became Command Central for the agencies, rescue workers and engineers who concentrated on assessing the damage, removing rubble, and securing the bathtub so that rescue, recovery and later rebuildi

Very quickly, as a later report by The New York Times put it, the MRCE conference room became a belowgrade command center to provide rescue workers and engineers with accurate information on the locations of the myriad walls, passages, floors, and water, sewer, electric, telephone, gas, subway, and train lines under the ruined plaza, and to determine how the collapsed building debris within the bathtub could be safely excavated. In the ensuing weeks, MRCE engineers slogged through six of the sev

CHAPTER 1 There is No Substitute Experience In 1892, young civil engineer Daniel E. Moran witnessed a tragedy. An airlock for a caisson under the Harlem River Bridge failed, and several workers were crushed to death. Horrified and galvanized, Moran immediately began to design what he labeled a safe and economical airlock to eliminate the problems that frequently plagued oldstyle airlocks. Morans employer, one of the celebrated foundation contractors of the era, chastised the young man for wast

Engineers. MRCE today reflects Morans passion for soil investigation, innovative design and construction of foundations, and attention to detail. History is still very strong with us, says partner Joel Moskowitz. Morans credo, There is no substitute for experience, encompasses several ideas on which the modern firm prides itself the conducting of extensive field work in geotechnical investigation as a basis for foundation construction continuity in the partnership through an apprenticeship and s

Daniel E. Moran in the firms continuing emphasis on thorough geotechnical investigations and 1864 1937 on innovative and constructible foundation designs. Isaac Newtons aphorism, If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants, applies not only to MRCEs relationship to its founder, but also to a philosophy that stresses the continuing education of younger firm members by senior ones. The need for conducting substantial research and understanding site history before making r

Woolworth Building New York, NY Daniel Morans young firm was the foundation engineer, while his former firm, The Foundation Company, was the foundation contractor for this iconic tower constructed between 1910 and 1913. Until 1930, it was the worlds tallest building. Today, nearly 100 years after its construction, it remains among the tallest buildings in the US. At right, pneumatic caissons are installed by The Foundation Company. Federal reserve Bank New York, NY This building, located at 33

William H. Mueser A worldrenowned civil engineer, Mueser was a contractors engineer always ready to roll up his sleeves and go to work. He graduated from MIT in 1922. Following graduate work in Berlin, Germany, he joined Moran, Maurice Proctor, a predecessor firm to MRCE in 1923. He became a Partner in 1936 and handled major projects until his retirement in 1975 after 52 years of service. 1900 1985 By 1923, the firm had grown. In that year, William H. Mueser joined, after earning an engineer

Flushing Meadows, Queens, NY MRCE has been working in the Flushing Meadows area for 75 years. A marine marsh of soft clay and silt down to 80 feet, the surface was only a few feet above the mean high tide level. Up until the 1930s, the site had been used as an ash dump for furnaces and incinerators. The poor soil conditions presented difficult conditions for any type of construction. The conditions threatened to compromise any structure whose foundations were not secure. When MRCE began work at

United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY Foundations for the United Nations Headquarters buildings in midtown Manhattan were designed by MRCE on a site consisting largely of reclaimed land along the East River. Pictured are the iconic Secretariat Building at left, fronted by the Conference Building, and the domed General Assembly Building is seen behind. In 1948, the United Nations site of six blocks along the East River was the largest site in Manhattan that MRCE had ever evaluated. It was a c

Vertical Assembly Building Cape Canaveral, FL Plant for manufacturing atomic fuel, and added port and airport facilities. One major project of that era was the building of the United Nations complex along the East River in Manhattan. On this sixblocklong site, the firms investigation of the substrate resulted in situating the signature 38story Secretariat Building at the location with the shallowest bedrock, with the General Assembly Building to its north, resting on a quite different type of fo

The philosophy and strategies of the firm continued to develop in the 1960s and 1970s during work on many large projects, including bridges, dams, and signature office buildings, such as the CBS Headquarters multibuilding projects such as Battery Park City in Manhattan, Marina City in Chicago, and Empire State Plaza in Albany and subways in New York, Los Angeles, Boston, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Atlanta, San Juan, and Montreal. On many of those projects, particularly the subways, the

of the Hudson River, which led to the construction of Battery Park City and the reclamation of many pier areas. He spent thirty years working on the Washington, DC subway system, from initial consulting through construction and completion. Jim figured out how to make it work, Lacy recalls, by developing profiles of the subsoil in each area to guide the tunneling. Hed always instruct junior associates to simplify their geologic sections and make them straightforward, so everybody involved could u

National Mall, Washington, DC Since 1923, MRCE has completed more then 360 projects in Washington DC. Many of them shown in this photo are on the National Mall, a notoriously difficult subsurface known for its high groundwater table, poor soil conditions, and location within a flood zone. 16

partner way of working one partner supervised a project and interacted with the client while a second acted as the firsts sounding board for ideas and as a backup in case the first was away. This arrangement maximized collaboration and the sharing of expertise. Frequently, the two partners on a project would be from the two different strengths of the firm, one specializing in geotechnical investigation, the second in design and construction. In 1985, on the occasion of the firms 75th anniversary

The Partners Todays partners standing left to right are Alfred H. Brand, Hugh S. Lacy, Francis J. Arland, David M. Cacoilo, Joel Moskowitz, Peter W. Deming, James L. Kaufman, and Roderic A. Ellman, Jr. Al Brand, Joel Moskowitz, and Jim Kaufman, are geotechnical engineers whose expertise spans many specialties Hugh Lacy and Frank Arland, geotechnical engineers with specialties that include bridges, tunnels and shafts, dams, and the technique of ground freezing Peter Deming, a geotechnical engin

Partnership History 1910 Daniel E. Moran Charles F. Maurice Carlton S. Proctor George L. Freeman William H. Mueser George T. Gilman Paul M. Wentworth Robert C. Johnston Philip C. Rutledge Salvatore V. DeSimone James P Gould . Elmer A. Richards Edmund M. Burke Dominic A. Zarrella George J. Tamaro Warren H. Anderson Peter H. Edinger Alfred H. Brand Hugh S. Lacy Tony Fennimore David M. Cacoilo Joel Moskowitz Peter W. Deming James L. Kaufman Roderic A. Ellman, Jr. Francis J. Arland Daniel E. Moran M

CHAPTER 2 It All Starts With the Soil nA ve . ta th Av e. ola sA ve . th Av e. an ha t Eig h Av e. hA ve . nA ve . ve n ich x .N on Se Av e. M Th ird Av e. rk Av e. dA ve . Le no tA ve . riv e iso St gt Se co n Pa Fir s Coarse to Fine Sand Rock Fordham Gneiss Varved Silt Clay Rock Manhattan Schist Till Rock Inwood Marble Compilation of subsurface information from multiple MRCE projects along 113th Street in Manhattan. To erect a building a dam a bridge a subway

Yankee Stadium, Bronx, NY The proposed new Yankee Stadium, across the street from the original Yankee Stadium, needed to be completed in time for the 2009 baseball season, and what faced MRCE and the rest of the design team in 2006, when the project began, was a complicated subsurface environment. MRCE served as the design teams geotechnical and foundation engineer, taking the project from a feasibility study through construction for the new open air, 50,000seat baseball stadium. For the feasib

Newtown Creek WPCP Expansion Brooklyn, NY foundations are geologic strata that date principally from about 10,000 years ago, when the glaciers melted and receded. As the glaciers retreated, they left layered deposits of till, outwash sand, and varved clay and silt over the bedrock, which dates from millions of years earlier, in the CambroOrdovician era. In Manhattan, the bedrock is at or near the surface in some places, while in others is at depths over 150 feet. Locating the top of bedrock and

Standard Penetration Test Drilling, recovering soil samples, and laboratory testing are essential to subsurface investigations. MRCE has pioneered in each of those areas. Daniel Morans early experiments with consolidation testing led to development of a new and improved consolidometer used for testing soft San Francisco Bay clay soils for design of the approaches to the Oakland Bay Bridge. The Moran and Proctor sampler, a 3inch diameter drive sampler with a thin liner and split barrel, was devel

Once the search for a new building site has been completed, its time for the borings. We think we take more care with borings than most, partner Al Brand states. And our approach is handson. Borings are conducted at specified locations within the site and samples are retrieved from specified intervals. While the boring contractors perform the drilling and sampling tasks, MRCE has an engineer or geologist present to inspect and log the work, under the direction of the partnerincharge who regularl

in developing geologic sections that during the early design phase become working drawings for use throughout the project. Examination of the soil samples and rock cores in the inhouse laboratory provides an additional critical analysis, one that shows how the soils will behave under the pressures of the structures, how quickly water will pass through the soil its permeability the potential reuse of the excavated soil for backfill, and many other properties necessary to develop foundation reco

Soil Mechanics Laboratory Founder Daniel Moran began his firms laboratory with his own pioneering soil consolidation measurement apparatus. Mueser Rutledge was the first firm in the U.S. to establish a private soil mechanics laboratory. Located within the firms offices, it is devoted exclusively to the firms own design and evaluation assignments, and provides a valueadded service to the firms clients, facilitating quick turnaround time for testing of samples and for handson examination of materi

Laboratory Equipment To enable specialized testing, the firm develops stateoftheart equipment. Of particular note in this regard is the new frozen ground testing room, which is able to perform such tests as compressive soil strength and creep under sustained pressure, expansion and heave estimates, thermal conductivity, and salinity. The firm has developed the capabilities to transport, store, and prepare samples that are frozen in the field and also to freeze samples under controlled conditions

CHAPTER 3 Then Comes the Foundation While most structural engineers spend their time at construction sites and at their design desks looking upward as a building progresses toward the sky, MRCEs engineers have a different view as partner Rick Ellman observes Were always looking below ground. 30 Hudson Street, Jersey City, NJ 28

The firms highly regarded abilities in foundation engineering derive, first of all, from the firms intimate knowledge of the site garnered by its own geotechnical experts. MRCEs capabilities are equally traceable to the firms experience with 100 years of foundation projects and to its familiarity with leadingedge technologies that aid in the design and building of economical, constructible foundations those that are readily and reliably erected. Foundation design and construction are not covere

JFK International Airport Air Train, Queens, NY The multiple award winning JFK Light Rail, completed in 2003, showcased MRCEs starttofinish capabilities. It is a system built on elevated twin rail tracks that provides ground transportation services at JFK airport and links to the NYCT subway system and the Long Island Railroad. The project was a designbuild effort and MRCE served as the teams geotechnical engineer and foundation designer. In addition to planning and implementing the subsurface i

loads on the system at 50 feet in the air, Cacoilo points out. Nearly 500 piers were used the narrowness of the strip precluded the use of spread footings, so MRCE designed a highcapacity pile foundation that could be erected in a tight space. Part of the task, for a portion of the light rail system that runs in a tunnel below hightraffic airport taxiways which could not be shut down, was the design of a cofferdam. This was an internallybraced steel sheetpile system that included a chemical grou

188 Ludlow, New York, NY From the Brooklyn Bridge to the towers that define the Manhattan skyline, designing foundations for New York Citys urban landscape has always challenged engineers. Sometimes challenges arise due to site constraints, geologic conditions, or the clients desire to maximize the footprint and height of the structures while minimizing costs. All of these challenges created a perfect storm of sorts for the designers at the 188 Ludlow Street project. The project involved the des

CitiField, Flushing Meadows, Queens, NY CitiField, the 800 million new home of the NY Mets, is located in Flushing Meadows, one of the most difficult building sites in the NY metro area due to its soft subsurface soils. Incineration residue had been dumped in its deep glacial valley until the area was developed for the 1939 and 196465 Worlds Fairs. Early on, the design team recognized that optimizing the pile foundations was critical to remaining on schedule and within budget. In these soft soil

Riverside South Development, New York, NY A large residential development is under construction at a 56acre waterfront site on Manhattans Upper West Side, between West 59th Street and West 72nd Street. The development, commonly known as Riverside South, includes highrise residential towers, an extension of the street grid westward with new bridges and streets, a large waterfront park, and a tunnel within the new park embankment. The new tunnel will replace the elevated Miller Highway along the w

New York Law School, New York, NY inspected the construction of foundations for an expansion of the venerable New York Law School. MRCE designed slurry walls, internally supported by the permanent basement slabs, in a way that allowed underground soil and debris to be removed through openings in the ground floor and basement slabs, which were cast as the excavation progressed. The rigid support system supported adjacent shallow buildings, some of them historic, and avoided having to use more exp

CHAPTER 4 4 At the Crossroads of the World In modernday, densely populated cities, new buildings usually must be erected next to existing structures, some of them historic, with little or no space separating them almost all sites have previously been built upon several times and developers strive to construct ever taller buildings with deeper basements in order to meet increasing demands for premium space. Such circumstances mandate innovative and careful foundation design and construction. 3

3 Perhaps the most difficult challenge for urban foundation design and construction is the need to build in and among existing underground structures, including subway tunnels, the foundations of adjacent buildings, water mains, utility lines, and other infrastructure obstacles. For MRCE, such complexity necessitates working closely with architects, engineers, developers, contractors, and employees of various city agencies responsible for transportation systems, utility lines, and buildings, in

5 Times Square, Manhattan, NY Back in the seventeenth century, when the island then called New Amsterdam was first settled, what would become the Times Square area consisted of rolling hills, meadows, and streams, thin layers of soil and decomposed rock covering bedrock. The first structures on the land were farms. Then came small residential buildings, and then, before the turn of the twentieth century, the hotels and theaters of what became the worldfamous Broadway district. Since the bedrock

42nd Street Development, Manhattan, NY The 96yearold Empire Theater sat on a location selected for retail development and a hotel, and to make room to erect their other new structures, the developer of that site, Forest City Ratner, made plans to move it 138 feet to the west. Noting that the path westward was over a pit filled mainly with construction debris, which could not by itself bear the load of the moving building, MRCE recommended driving 430 steel piles to support the theaters 3,700 ton

One Bryant Park, Manhattan, NY This complicated site incorporated a deep rock excavation along 6th Avenue, protection of subway tunnels on two sides, and the preservation of the historical Henry Millers theater faade, which was incorporated into the new tower. The success of the project, as featured in Civil Engineering magazine, was the result of early coordination between the design team, owner, public agencies, and the contractor. 6th Avenue Looking North Property Line Existing Grade 60 Exis

Each site had different uses and different challenges, even those that were within hundreds of feet of one another, partner Joel Moskowitz recalls. We had to work with the New York City Department of Buildings, the Transit Authority, the 42nd Street Development Corporation, and the public utility companies, checking with them on all plans. The variety of the work showcased the firms abilities and its flexibility. One project involved helping to move a building, a second meant shifting plans for

4 Times Square, Manhattan, NY the historic New Amsterdam Theatre, built in the 1890s. MRCEs assignments for this tower included a geotechnical investigation, evaluating alternative foundation schemes including rocksocketed caissons and piers, review of the design of subway excavation support drawings, specifications for the new foundations, a historic preservation protection plan for the New Amsterdam Theatre, and inspection of the foundation construction. The tower at 7 Times Square was to be t

New York Times Headquarters, Manhattan, NY As the projects geotechnical consultant, MRCEs project role included inspection of borings, preparation of the geotechnical report, support of excavation drawings, securing NYCT approval for foundations, and inspection of the foundation work. The mixed foundation system used overcame the difficult site conditions. 43

Times Square Tower, Manhattan, NY MRCE collaborated with the design and construction team to secure NYCT approval and design unique cost effective foundations around the busiest subway station in New York City. The drilling of the rocksocketed caissons and installation of the unique core steel for one of the caissons are depicted below. 41st Street Subway Below 60 Times Square Tower Limits Existing Subway Station To Remain 42nd Street Subway Station Below New Concrete Column New Basement Wal

contractor, Urban Foundations LLC, who proposed a neverbeforeconstructed caisson, one that had a 13inchdiameter, highstrength, solid steel core. The deep foundations for these new towers were installed using downthehole hammers. During this process, the subways were monitored with vibration sensors and strain gauges. The monitoring recorded no adverse effects on the subway, a fact that validated MRCEs assertion during the design phase that such hammers would have minimal impact on the subway str

CHAPTER 5 If I Can Make If I can make it there, the song about New York goes, I can make it anywhere. For MRCE, this has meant taking the expertise gained from meeting the challenges in New York Citys difficult subsurface environment and using it to assist clients who face similar challenges in cities around the world. We frequently go overseas because our clients in the U.S. ask us to work with them on their projects, partner Al Brand observes.

it There... Just about every city in the world with a long history has a complicated urban center in need of rebuilding. New York City is a prime example of working in a difficult urban environment, and the challenges encountered in New York are replicated in most of the worlds other large cities, such as Boston, Washington, Mexico City, Berlin, Frankfurt, Moscow, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Singapore, Seoul, Taipei, London, and others in which MRCE has worked. An example of following clients as they expa

Friedrichstadt Passagen, Berlin, Germany MRCE designed a slurry wall for a fourstory deep basement for this mixed use development covering three city blocks in the heart of historic Berlin, Germany. Foundation design concepts were developed and computerassisted studies of groundwater flow were performed to develop a costeffective method of excavating in sand below the water table, while addressing restrictions on construction dewatering imposed by the local authorities. The selected scheme, a pe

to collaborate on an innovative piled raft foundation to reduce the potential for building tilt and settlement. Subsequent to successful completion of the building, MRCE consulted with the developer on the potential detrimental effects of dewatering, which was underway as part of subway construction adjacent to the building. MRCEs work in Frankfurt readied the firm for a more complex challenge in Berlin. Brand recalls that after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Tishman Speyer Properties, teamed with

Sony Center, Berlin, Germany eightbuilding, multipurpose complex in Berlins equally historic Potsdamer Platz. Connected to the Center are a rail station and two underground tunnels for subway and automobile traffic. The site was complicated by the presence of an old hotel whose parts were to be preserved and repositioned on the site, by the remnants of the foundations of other buildings, and by unexploded World War II ordnance. The site was similar to MRCEs experience in the Times Square area of

United States Embassy, Berlin, Germany As the general geotechnical consultant to the architect for the new fivestory embassy in Berlin, MRCE advised on site ground conditions and building foundations, oversaw borings done by a local geotechnical consultant, and participated on the international team that designed vibration isolation retrofit solutions for the SBahn subway that passes below. Hofgarten am Gendarmenmarkt, Berlin, Germany MRCE developed geotechnical criteria for construction of a

Torre Mayor, Mexico City, Mexico lowstrength clay to a hard, dense formation below. Because Mexico City has experienced significant settlement, about onethird of an inch per year, due to extensive dewatering of the deep soil strata as a result of pumping wells installed for industrial and domestic water purposes, MRCE was challenged to design the basement cofferdam to minimize dewatering and not adversely impact adjacent structures and streets. In the end, the cofferdam allowed an amazing 130,0

United Arab Emirates In the United Arab Emirates, MRCE has worked on numerous projects including The Palms, a famous resort in the shape of a palm tree and so large that it can be seen from satellites orbiting the earth, Al Raha Tower, and the Limitless Building, and is currently engaged in a large waterfront complex in Abu Dhabi. The complex is located at the end of an 820 foot wide pier that extends more than half a mile out into the Gulf. Construction, which began in 2008, will include hotels

Changi Water Treatment Plant, Singapore MRCE has also worked closely with New York Citybased design teams led by Swanke Hayden Connell and Frank Williams Architects on two towers within the Moscows city within a city, pictured on page 45. MRCE and Swanke had previously collaborated on the Federal Office Building in New York Citys Foley Square, and with Williams, on a handful of New York City projects including The Marc and several Riverside South buildings all of the projects involving complica

Petroterminal de Panama, Chiriqui Grande, Panama As with many of its overseas projects, MRCEs 30 years of work in Panama began with a stateside client who needed the firms expertise in another area of the world. In 1978, after assisting Northville Industries of Long Island on an oil unloading terminal near Riverhead at that time, the only terminal on the East Coast capable of berthing 200,000ton supertankers Northville asked MRCE to consult in the design and construction of oil unloading facil

CHAPTER 6 Means and Methods Means and Methods are at the heart of what we do for our clients providing the most economic way of completing their foundations and other structures, asserts partner Dave Cacoilo. 56 Able to provide an onion skin concept through to a contract drawing, MRCE serves as a valuable resource for contractors and other clients.

The American Institute of Architects uses the term Means and Methods to describe those construction procedures that are the responsibility of the contractor. Often the engineer does not provide drawings for such procedures. In many of those instances, contractors and other clients turn to MRCE to furnish these services. MRCE provides our clients with the most economic way of completing their foundations economic in the old definition, as in using the minimum of time and resources necessary for e

Study Area 7, Jersey City, NJ MRCE was the Engineer of Record for an excavation of one million cubic yards of contaminated ground and its replacement with controlled clean fill for an urban waterfront site in Jersey City, NJ. In the beginning phase of the project, MRCE conducted a subsurface investigation to define the nature and extent of the contamination and designed the excavation and groundwater control barrier. 58

A 34acre Honeywell site in New Jersey known as Study Area 7 presented an unusual opportunity for MRCE to provide the means and methods of a complicated cleanup project in order to meet a court mandate to remove the waste product. 50 years ago the site was filled with chromium waste from an industrial process, partner Peter Deming recalls. By the time remediation began, the site was a large undeveloped tract next to urban residential neighborhoods with hundreds of privately owned condominiums and

four years. The waste was transferred to railcars and later was transported to Idaho, which has a superior geological configuration and low annual rainfall ideal for waste storage. Remediation was completed in the fall of 2009, a few weeks ahead of schedule. The site is now clean and slated for highdensity commercial and residential development. n n n called a better idea, one that was a bit daring because it entailed techniques and technologies that had never before been used in such a situat

63rd Street Connector, Queens, NY MRCE provided extensive geotechnical and structural engineering services on four contracts for this largescale project that connected the 63rd Street subway Q Line to the Queens Boulevard bound subway E F Lines under Northern Boulevard. Services included the slurry wall design for the box connector and excavation for an adjacent tunnel ventilation complex, as well as a siphon sewer tunnel below Northern Boulevard and a box sewer culvert. Instead of constructing

NJDOT Route 52 Causeway Reconstruction, Ocean City, NJ be designed around construction could not disturb the surface at Battery Park, and the trains would have to keep running while construction was in process. The contractor was considering three different approaches to the construction. The first relied on ground freezing to stabilize the substrate and make it possible to support the existing tunnels while excavating the new one. MRCE, a leader in ground freezing, did not like its potential u

New South Ferry Terminal, New York, NY Existing Northbound Train Temporary Utility Supports Fill Sand Secant Pile Wall Till Rock Anchor New Tunnel New Mezzanine Pipe Strut Bracing Existing Tunnel 110 100 90 Track Support System 80 70 Elevation Top of Rock 60 50 40 Rock Pin Bedrock Underpinning Mini Pile Illustration shows how the new station tunnel was built in the excavated space. A staged removal of the temporary supports occurred as the new tunnel was constructed until the existing

CHAPTER 7 BRIDGES TO EVERYWHERE Bridges are not only critical links in our highway and transportation systems, but many are also iconic structures that reflect architectural visions. Unlike aboveground buildings, parts of bridge foundations are visible above the surface of the water and as such become part of the architecture although, as with icebergs, most of the bulk in bridges is below the surface. Without a properly designed foundation, a bridge cannot soar, or endure through decades of

Woodrow Wilson Bridge, Washington, DC MRCE served as the geotechnical and foundation engineer to the design team for this muchneeded new bridge. This team was awarded the project as the winning team in a design competition. MRCE performed pile design phase testing, including a Pile Demonstration Program pictured above right and a soilstructure interaction analysis involving stateoftheart seismic modeling techniques. These tests enabled MRCE to optimize the foundations for the new bridge, result

Baldwin Bridge, Old Lyme, CT Since the Moran era, MRCE has been involved in the design of bridge foundations and continues to be in the forefront of the field today. Morans earliest patent dealt with bridge construction, partner Joel Moskowitz points out. Some of the signature bridge projects in the firms history include the Golden Gate Bridge over San Francisco Bay and the Benjamin Franklin Bridge over the Delaware River, connecting Philadelphia and Camden. The Golden Gate and the Ben Franklin

Thames River Bridge, Groton, CT When unexpected pier settlements were observed during a rehabilitation project, MRCE was consulted to diagnose the problem and ultimately to arrest the settlement. MRCE also developed and implemented a comprehensive instrumentation program to monitor the movements of the two main bridge piers. A remedial grouting program was designed that consisted of a tailored grid of grout holes, including grout holes through the caisson concrete. To come up with grout that ult

Ben Franklin Bridge, Philadelphia, PA When it was constructed in 1922, the bridges 1750foot span made it the worlds longest suspension bridge, a distinction it would hold until 1929. Daniel E. Moran, the founder of MRCE, was the designer of the caissons for the tower piers. For the project, a detailed exploration of the riverbed at proposed locations for the massive granite piers was conducted. Because of improvements in caisson design used on this bridge, the foundation was completed without a

Because of MRCEs strong and longterm expertise in bridge foundations, the firm has investigated bridge failures. One of the most important was the sudden, catastrophic collapse of a 540foot bridge that was part of New Yorks Thruway over Schoharie Creek. On April 5, 1987, when the spring flood waters were at their highest in 50 years, one of four piers gave way and the bridge collapsed while several cars and trucks were on it 10 people lost their lives. Deming recalls investigating this collapse

Portal Bridge, SecaucusKearny, NJ The nearly hundredyearold Portal Bridge over the Hackensack River between Secaucus and Kearny, in the southern section of the New Jersey Meadowlands, is a bottleneck in three ways. First, while it currently carries as much rail traffic as any rail bridge in the U.S. dozens of Amtrak trains, and 150,000 commuters on New Jersey Transit trains each day, it cannot handle the large expected increases in commuter traffic. Second, because the bridge is too low over th

Tappan Zee Bridge Westchester County, NY maximizing pile capacity, which resulted in significant cost and constructionschedule savings. As at Schoharie Creek, scour was a big problem. To mitigate its impact, MRCE incorporated innovative design solutions, including the use of Potomac River or hung cofferdams that would reduce contraction scour more effectively than could be achieved with conventional cofferdams. Another important design solution involved the use of a pile supported fender ring as

CHAPTER 8 On the Waterfront Gantry Plaza State Park Queens West Development, Queens, NY 72

MRCEs practice in the waterfront and marine engineering fields, says partner David Cacoilo, has always been a natural fit since the poorest soil conditions are almost always found on the waterfront ... and we thrive on overcoming subsurface challenges. As transportation usages shifted over the decades, many pier facilities fell into disuse but with cities continuing to expand, waterfront properties regained value. A 74acre property on the waterfront in Long Island City, with wonderful views of t

Maher Shipping Terminal, Elizabeth, NJ the problems to be addressed were the aging of the waterfront infrastructure, the increased activity of marine borers that is the result of a general improvement in water quality, and the increasing size of commercial vessels. Together, these factors necessitated the retrofitting of old structures. At the Maher Terminal in Elizabeth, New Jersey, MRCE first designed new container crane foundations large enough to accommodate supermax freighters of a size th

Hoboken Ferry Terminal, Hoboken, NJ Located on a site used for a ferry landing since the Colonial era, the Hoboken Terminal served as an eastern terminus for the Erie Lackawanna and is the last remaining active rail terminal on the Hudson River. Renovated over decades with the participation of MRCE, the terminal will soon serve commuter ferries out of its original slips. Photos show the deteriorated terminal above left and renovated terminal in March 2010 above right. Driving piles for column u

The Pier at Caesars, Atlantic City, NJ Transformation of the former Million Dollar Pier into The Pier at Caesars required complex and coordinated engineering by the design team that was challenged by the owner to create the largest structure possible on an existing pier. Now a distinctive dining, shopping, and entertainment destination connected to Caesars casino, the pier needed to be redesigned for heavier loads and be connected to the hotel casino by a glass skybridge. MRCEs work included rev

Equally challenging for MRCE was the redevelopment of the centuryold Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City. Initially a functioning pier for fishing boats, in the 1980s it was repurposed as a shopping mall and replaced with a new modern pier designed by MRCE. More recently, The Taubman Company wanted to expand and modify the pier as a showcase for luxury retail shopping and restaurants and the tallest indoor fountain in the world, all connected to Caesars casino by a glass skyway. MRCE was called

Hudson River Park, Manhattan, NY MRCEs work on Hudson River Park, the largest park in Manhattan since the construction of Central Park, has recently included the Chelsea Piers Segment 5 Piers 62, 63, and 64 pictured lower center, and the NYFDs new fireboat pier, Pier 53 pictured lower right. The awardwinning Pier 64 was completed in 2009, with Piers 62 and 63 opening in 2010. Shown in the graphic top right are the extralong, MRCEdesigned hybrid piles required to support the piers. MRCE designed

the strips of land between the West Side Highway and the Hudson River for recreational purposes. MRCE, already serving as the general geotechnical engineer for the highway reconstruction, also became involved in the master planning for the new park, evaluating the piers and bulkheads, developing the conceptual design, and permitting of the repair projects. Then we became 0 Precast Concrete Pile Upper Section Organic Clay 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 involved with the group developing ideas for the

Metro Machine Shipyard, Norfolk, VA This venerable floating drydock facility had been servicing all sorts of Navy ships for decades but was in need of a reconfiguration so it could handle modern vessels. MRCE provided conceptual design for drydock mooring and breasting dolphins, bulkhead rehabilitation, tower crane foundations, and related facilities such as timber walkway trestles, vehicle access ramps, fender systems, and concrete pilesupported platforms for cranes. Rikers Island Marina and

Coastal areas are unique and possess a variety of natural, recreational, commercial, ecological, cultural, aesthetic and energy resources of great significance. But many of these areas are underutilized eyesores as modern society transitions away from using the waterfront for manufacturing and transfer of goods. It has been a natural transition for MRCE to make use of their vast experience in designing marine structures, ports, and dry docks, to that of analyzing these now unused and decaying st

One of MRCEs longestrunning involvements along the waterfront is with Battery Park City in Manhattan. Since its inception in the 1970s, four generations of MRCE partners have worked on various aspects of the project. The 92acre area that Battery Park City now occupies was once part of the Hudson River. Excavation for the World Trade Center site provided 1.2 million cubic yards of fill for Battery Park City, but that was only enough for 23 acres, so MRCE engineers recommended taking sand from ong

Battery Park City, Manhattan, NY In 2010, the Battery Park City development is almost complete and MRCE has performed marine and foundation engineering services on a majority of the structures. MRCEs work began in the 1970s with the design of the 92acre landfill pictured top left on which this waterfront city within a city rests. By the end of the 1980s, many residential towers, the North Cove Yacht Harbor and World Financial Center pictured top right, as well as many of the main parks including

CHAPTER 9 Tunnels Dams Many MRCE projects involve revamping and upgrading Americas infrastructure and are undertaken for public authorities, municipalities and for utility companies that are private but operated in conjunction with public needs and regulations. These range from tunnels and shafts for conveying transportation and utilities to stations for subways and light rail systems, to dams and from very large projects to much smaller ones. 84 from to

Tunnels and Shafts MRCEs tunneling and shaft projects draw on the firms extensive knowledge of soils and geology and of cuttingedge techniques for working beneath the surface. Our tunnel projects have not been limited to just underpinning existing structures, says partner Frank Arland. We have also fully designed tunnels and shafts and inspected their construction. One of the more challenging recent tunneling projects involved the need for Consolidated Edison the New York power company known lo

Con Edison Willis Avenue Bridge HDD Crossing, Manhattan, NY river and the mostly horizontal tunnel underneath, and helped to inspect the construction. During the construction phase, the many aboveground buildings and utilities near the route were monitored by the contractor to ensure that they were not affected by the tunneling. The interior of the nearly completed tunnel carries a gas line as well as the electrical lines and is large enough for Con Edison to be able to add additional lines as

Village. The owners original design called for an open cut trench, but at MRCEs recommendation this was rejected for many reasons, including the fact that an open trench could have damaged other utilities and would have necessitated costly repaving of the sidewalk and street and all the disruption that entails. MRCE recommended microtunneling, for carving out the route in which to jack the pipe, and inserting a 60inch pipe within which the 42inch main could rest. Steam pressure tries to push th

Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, NJ Excavator with rotary cutterhead removes the existing brick lining to provide greater clearance for trains. Inset photo shows the installation of the new lining. 88

MRCE is also working on designs to rehabilitate and retrofit existing tunnels for modern day requirements. Conrail, the freight rail company and its owners CSX and Norfolk Southern, needed to raise the height of some of their tunnels to accommodate rail cars bearing two shipping containers, one stacked atop the other. The main tunnels connecting their Croxton and Oak Island Yards in New Jersey were not tall enough to accommodate the doubledeckers. The Bergen and Waldo Tunnels were built prior to

Newark Elizabeth Rail Link, Newark, NJ MRCE had used this technique in 1988 in a similar Conrail tunnel that runs directly under the parade grounds at the West Point Military Academy. When completed in 2010, the reconstructed Bergen tunnel will allow the railroad to double the amount of freight it can carry, and augment the capacity of Conrail and the East Coast docks and other rail systems with which it connects. Other large tunneling infrastructure projects on which MRCE is engaged include tw

PATH Exchange Place, Jersey City, NJ Serving as the geotechnical and foundation engineers for the rehabilitation and enlargement of this underground PATH station, MRCE designed a slurry wall to encapsulate a new station entrance, designed the inclined shaft in rock for the new deep escalators and developed the procedures for excavating into the existing station in rock. Office Tower Above Slurry Wall Cofferdam Old Foundations New Exchange Place Station Overwater Platform Piling Hudson River M

PATH Morton Street Shaft Manhattan, NY Among MRCEs tasks in the NJT project was providing design services for underground connections to the PATH systems. The Port Authority of New York and New Jerseys TransHudson subway lines, known as PATH, has also commissioned several more projects in which MRCE is intimately involved. Aimed at enhancing the commuter line within New Jersey, and its connections to Manhattan, the MRCE designs are part of ongoing modernization that will eventually result in re

Outfalls Most big city sewage systems in the continental United States have a secondary treatment plant to reduce the wastes before they are pumped into rivers or oceans. However, at a treatment plant in Puerto Rico, there was no secondary plant, and a shallow shelf surrounds the island out to several miles. No treated sewage could be discharged on that shelf it had to be carried more than 3.5 miles offshore, where it could safely be released into the deep ocean. MRCE was asked to assist with th

Cross River Dam, Westchester County, NY MRCE designed and prepared working drawings for a cofferdam for a replacement spillway structure on existing reservoir, modifying the original design concept to make it more economical to construct. 94

Dams In projects that took several decades, an environmental engineering firm and longterm MRCE client was commissioned to work on five dams in North Carolina. In the early years of these projects, Jim Gould was the MRCE partner in charge Hugh Lacy then took over, and more recently, Frank Arland. On such projects, Arland says, MRCE is typically retained as the geotechnical engineer and is responsible for subsurface investigations, evaluating seepage, designing seepage cutoffs, and performing dam

CHAPTER 10 Stateoftheart Part of MRCEs ability to thrive as a firm derives from the partners continually augmented expertise with construction techniques, technologies, materials, and delivery systems. As new cuttingedge innovations emerge, MRCE engineers investigate them and expand their ability to lead. 96 applications and solutions

The firms current expertise on the technological forefront ranges from various methods to control water, to seismic testing and analysis, to new designs for piles and other construction materials, to monitoring of construction by harnessing the capabilities of the Internet. MRCE engineers analytical ability and understanding of construction techniques have facilitated innovative ideas on the design side of numerous projects. These ideas help shape project direction, accomplish client goals, and

Manhattanville, Manhattan, NY Pumping tests conducted by MRCE were used to develop a groundwater model to use in selection of the foundations needed for this major university campus expansion. Construction will be completed in stages, and this key plan shows the final phase, which culminates in a campus that combines academic and civic life in a former manufacturing area of West Harlem. Dewatering Systems and Numerical Modeling For construction of a sewer tunnel in Ohio, where the soil consiste

CalPERS Headquarters Expansion, Sacramento, CA The new California Public Employees Retirement System CalPERS headquarters in downtown Sacramento was constructed on a twocityblock site that posed several engineering challenges. The site is underlain with sand and gravel deposits that regularly experience a large rise in the water table, and the surrounding neighborhood is underlain with compressible deposits sensitive to changes in the water table. The buildings twolevel basement is one of the de

Four Seasons Hotel and Legg Mason Headquarters, Baltimore, MD Forty miles north of Washington DC, MRCE had to tackle another difficult but quite different water control project. Among the most challenging projects on which to keep the water out are those right next to rivers and harbors, Hugh Lacy explains, and that category encompassed a project in Baltimores Inner Harbor. A highrise development was planned for a 2.3acre site formerly used for generations by manufacturing, but more recently had

Belleville Hydroelectric, Belleville, WV supported on pile or spread foundations. To evaluate the dewatering methods to be used, MRCE designed and performed pumping tests on the site, and, with the data from these tests, developed a calibrated groundwater numerical model of the sites complex soil profile. The model was then used to simulate what the effects of various dewatering methods would be. Slurry Walls Much of the firms work associated with containing water involves the use of slurry wal

Paerdegat Basin CSO, Brooklyn, NY MRCE designed a slurry wall cutoff system for a water quality facility, which stores stormwater runoff. At a depth of 200 feet, it is the deepest slurry wall in the tristate area. Photo shows site construction in 2002. designed a much less costly way of constructing a water barrier than the conventional reinforced concrete wall a soilcement trench thus bringing down construction costs and making the new plant more economically viable. The high and seasonally

DC Convention Center, Washington, DC The Washington, DC Convention Center, which encompasses fiveandahalf city blocks with two of those blocks running adjacent to the Green Line subway, is one of MRCEs largest slurry wall projects. The site required dewatering, but also economy in construction, says partner Hugh Lacy. Our solution was to have the slurry wall that provided temporary support of the excavation also become the permanent structural foundation wall. Because of its dual purposes, the s

Russia Wharf, Boston, MA One of the most extensive uses of ground freezing ever done in the United States was designed by MRCE on the Russia Wharf project adjacent to Bostons Harbor and Fort Point Channel. As part of the Central ArteryTunnel project, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority MBTA wanted to construct a new, milelong transitway tunnel for the Silver Line, to connect downtown Boston to South Boston. This was a very complicated project, partner Frank Arland recalls. The binocul

Ground Freezing An early Daniel Moran project, when he was an apprentice engineer in 1889, involved the thennew technique of freezing the ground, in this instance around a mine shaft in order to facilitate an excavation. Fascinated with the technique, Moran took copious notes and wrote an article on the subject. Nearly a century after Morans experience, MRCE has become a leader in using ground freezing to stabilize soils for excavation and construction. Ground freezing is a preferred option in s

New Pile Types The new Pier 64, near 23rd Street on the Hudson River, was designed to extend far out into the river to the most westerly point in Hudson River Park, as well as of Manhattan itself. But the geotechnical conditions were very complex. The mud at the bottom was thick, and beneath it the bearing stratum was quite deep also, as the distance from the shore increased, the pier would be in a considerable depth of water, and there were swift currents that any design had to take into consid

Hillview Reservoir Cover, Yonkers, NY Seismic Evaluations As design to withstand earthquakes is increasingly mandated for new construction, and retrofits are being required to incorporate earthquake protection, MRCE has emerged at the forefront in the innovative use of geoseismic services, including designs that reflect code compliance, geophysical laboratory and field testing, seismic hazard analysis and risk assessments using Geographic Information Systems GIS, soilfoundationstructure interac

2nd Avenue Subway, Manhattan, NY MRCE is providing in conjunction with its excavation support design instrumentation and monitoring for two cutandcover excavations for a future subway station on the new line, one between 83rd and 84th Streets, the other between 86th and 87th Streets. The monitoring program includes building deformation monitoring using Automated Motorized Total Stations AMTS that read reflective prisms mounted to building faades, groundwater monitoring, noise monitoring, vibra

Instrumentation Monitoring Especially in crowded cities, and in subsurface environments where new construction may affect nearby existing structures, monitoring during construction is imperative. MRCE has developed an expertise in the development of efficient monitoring programs, in design and installation of monitoring instruments, and in conveying monitored information remotely via the Internet. Construction professionals and clients are notified by email or text whenever events are recorded

Epilogue Foundations of the Future Inquisitiveness Inventiveness Integrity 110 World Trade Center Tower 1, New York, NY

At the outset of the skyscraper era, in 1910, Daniel Moran founded his small firm upon a vision of a cadre of engineers, experienced in all phases of subsurface work, who would consult to contractors and other engineers on a variety of projects, from office buildings to bridges, tunnels, dams, and docks. Over time, as the firm grew, it hewed close to this vision and accomplished all that Moran had hoped, contributing to the construction of icons of the American landscape from New Yorks Stock Exc

generally remained with the firm during their entire careers. Continuity and the longterm perspective are also strengthened by the firms practice of mentoring young engineers on its large projects, so when a partner retires, an active partner and staff engineers with intimate knowledge of the project are able to take over seamlessly. When asked about the future of the firm in its next 100 years, partners opined that a major focus would surely be construction in cities. Increasing urbanization is

billows of steelgray bedrock, punctuated by thousands of beachsmooth cobblestones in a muted rainbow of reds and purples and greens has basked in sunlight this summer for the first time in millennia. The pothole dated back to the ice ages. One geologist, based on the presence of an unusual mineral in the crevice, estimated that the rock around it had originally been 20 miles deep in the earth when the North American and African continental plates came together, they pushed the rock upward. The

PhotographyIllustration Credits Foreword Nicholson Construction Company Page 11 Aerial, Intervision New Media Page 14 Bob Vale, Graphic Word Page 18 Bob Vale, Graphic Word Page 28 Background, Andreas Adelmann Page 32 Illustration, Alf Brand Page 33 Aerial, Intervision New Media Page 33 Illustration, Alf Brand Page 34 Aerial, Intervision New Media Page 35 Illustration, Alf Brand Page 56 Background, Bob Vale, Graphic Word Page 64 Blue Hour on the Potomac Donald H. Yoshida Page 67 Background, Jame

Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers 14 Penn Plaza 225 West 34th Street New York, NY 101220002 Telephone 9173399300 www.mrce.com

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