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Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers 100 Years of Foundation Engineering 1910 2010 By Tom Shachtman, in Collaboration with the Partners of the Firm

2010 Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers. All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any m

Table of Contents Foreword Prologue Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Epilogue Credits Saving the Bathtub There is No Substitute for

Foundation construction for the Four Seasons Hotel and Legg Mason Headquarters, Baltimore, MD. Two additional MRCE projects appear in the background The Allied Signal Baltimore Works Plant site upper

Foreword The Partners of the Firm are pleased to publish this book celebrating the one hundred years since Daniel Moran left his position as Vice President and Chief Engineer of the Foundation Compan

PROLOGUE SAVING THE BATHTUB A day after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 that leveled the twin World Trade Center Towers and adjacent buildings, a crisis group gathered in the conference r

The site was kept open by a 3,400foot long, 70foot deep slurry wall surrounding the western half of the World Trade Center complex, that prevented the nearby Hudson River from flooding the site. The b

THE BATHTUB When the twin towers collapsed as a result of the attack on September 11, 2001, the condition of the slurry wall or bathtub the watertight perimeter wall that surrounds the site and the

Very quickly, as a later report by The New York Times put it, the MRCE conference room became a belowgrade command center to provide rescue workers and engineers with accurate information on the locat

CHAPTER 1 There is No Substitute Experience In 1892, young civil engineer Daniel E. Moran witnessed a tragedy. An airlock for a caisson under the Harlem River Bridge failed, and several workers were

Engineers. MRCE today reflects Morans passion for soil investigation, innovative design and construction of foundations, and attention to detail. History is still very strong with us, says partner Joe

Daniel E. Moran in the firms continuing emphasis on thorough geotechnical investigations and 1864 1937 on innovative and constructible foundation designs. Isaac Newtons aphorism, If I have seen furth

Woolworth Building New York, NY Daniel Morans young firm was the foundation engineer, while his former firm, The Foundation Company, was the foundation contractor for this iconic tower constructed bet

William H. Mueser A worldrenowned civil engineer, Mueser was a contractors engineer always ready to roll up his sleeves and go to work. He graduated from MIT in 1922. Following graduate work in Berli

Flushing Meadows, Queens, NY MRCE has been working in the Flushing Meadows area for 75 years. A marine marsh of soft clay and silt down to 80 feet, the surface was only a few feet above the mean high

United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY Foundations for the United Nations Headquarters buildings in midtown Manhattan were designed by MRCE on a site consisting largely of reclaimed land along the

Vertical Assembly Building Cape Canaveral, FL Plant for manufacturing atomic fuel, and added port and airport facilities. One major project of that era was the building of the United Nations complex a

The philosophy and strategies of the firm continued to develop in the 1960s and 1970s during work on many large projects, including bridges, dams, and signature office buildings, such as the CBS Headq

of the Hudson River, which led to the construction of Battery Park City and the reclamation of many pier areas. He spent thirty years working on the Washington, DC subway system, from initial consulti

National Mall, Washington, DC Since 1923, MRCE has completed more then 360 projects in Washington DC. Many of them shown in this photo are on the National Mall, a notoriously difficult subsurface know

partner way of working one partner supervised a project and interacted with the client while a second acted as the firsts sounding board for ideas and as a backup in case the first was away. This arra

The Partners Todays partners standing left to right are Alfred H. Brand, Hugh S. Lacy, Francis J. Arland, David M. Cacoilo, Joel Moskowitz, Peter W. Deming, James L. Kaufman, and Roderic A. Ellman, J

Partnership History 1910 Daniel E. Moran Charles F. Maurice Carlton S. Proctor George L. Freeman William H. Mueser George T. Gilman Paul M. Wentworth Robert C. Johnston Philip C. Rutledge Salvatore V.

CHAPTER 2 It All Starts With the Soil nA ve . ta th Av e. ola sA ve . th Av e. an ha t Eig h Av e. hA ve . nA ve . ve n ich x .N on Se Av e. M Th ird Av e. rk Av e. dA ve . Le no tA

Yankee Stadium, Bronx, NY The proposed new Yankee Stadium, across the street from the original Yankee Stadium, needed to be completed in time for the 2009 baseball season, and what faced MRCE and the

Newtown Creek WPCP Expansion Brooklyn, NY foundations are geologic strata that date principally from about 10,000 years ago, when the glaciers melted and receded. As the glaciers retreated, they left

Standard Penetration Test Drilling, recovering soil samples, and laboratory testing are essential to subsurface investigations. MRCE has pioneered in each of those areas. Daniel Morans early experimen

Once the search for a new building site has been completed, its time for the borings. We think we take more care with borings than most, partner Al Brand states. And our approach is handson. Borings a

in developing geologic sections that during the early design phase become working drawings for use throughout the project. Examination of the soil samples and rock cores in the inhouse laboratory prov

Soil Mechanics Laboratory Founder Daniel Moran began his firms laboratory with his own pioneering soil consolidation measurement apparatus. Mueser Rutledge was the first firm in the U.S. to establish

Laboratory Equipment To enable specialized testing, the firm develops stateoftheart equipment. Of particular note in this regard is the new frozen ground testing room, which is able to perform such te

CHAPTER 3 Then Comes the Foundation While most structural engineers spend their time at construction sites and at their design desks looking upward as a building progresses toward the sky, MRCEs engi

The firms highly regarded abilities in foundation engineering derive, first of all, from the firms intimate knowledge of the site garnered by its own geotechnical experts. MRCEs capabilities are equal

JFK International Airport Air Train, Queens, NY The multiple award winning JFK Light Rail, completed in 2003, showcased MRCEs starttofinish capabilities. It is a system built on elevated twin rail tra

loads on the system at 50 feet in the air, Cacoilo points out. Nearly 500 piers were used the narrowness of the strip precluded the use of spread footings, so MRCE designed a highcapacity pile foundat

188 Ludlow, New York, NY From the Brooklyn Bridge to the towers that define the Manhattan skyline, designing foundations for New York Citys urban landscape has always challenged engineers. Sometimes c

CitiField, Flushing Meadows, Queens, NY CitiField, the 800 million new home of the NY Mets, is located in Flushing Meadows, one of the most difficult building sites in the NY metro area due to its sof

Riverside South Development, New York, NY A large residential development is under construction at a 56acre waterfront site on Manhattans Upper West Side, between West 59th Street and West 72nd Street

New York Law School, New York, NY inspected the construction of foundations for an expansion of the venerable New York Law School. MRCE designed slurry walls, internally supported by the permanent bas

CHAPTER 4 4 At the Crossroads of the World In modernday, densely populated cities, new buildings usually must be erected next to existing structures, some of them historic, with little or no space s

3 Perhaps the most difficult challenge for urban foundation design and construction is the need to build in and among existing underground structures, including subway tunnels, the foundations of adj

5 Times Square, Manhattan, NY Back in the seventeenth century, when the island then called New Amsterdam was first settled, what would become the Times Square area consisted of rolling hills, meadows,

42nd Street Development, Manhattan, NY The 96yearold Empire Theater sat on a location selected for retail development and a hotel, and to make room to erect their other new structures, the developer o

One Bryant Park, Manhattan, NY This complicated site incorporated a deep rock excavation along 6th Avenue, protection of subway tunnels on two sides, and the preservation of the historical Henry Mill

Each site had different uses and different challenges, even those that were within hundreds of feet of one another, partner Joel Moskowitz recalls. We had to work with the New York City Department of

4 Times Square, Manhattan, NY the historic New Amsterdam Theatre, built in the 1890s. MRCEs assignments for this tower included a geotechnical investigation, evaluating alternative foundation schemes

New York Times Headquarters, Manhattan, NY As the projects geotechnical consultant, MRCEs project role included inspection of borings, preparation of the geotechnical report, support of excavation dra

Times Square Tower, Manhattan, NY MRCE collaborated with the design and construction team to secure NYCT approval and design unique cost effective foundations around the busiest subway station in New

contractor, Urban Foundations LLC, who proposed a neverbeforeconstructed caisson, one that had a 13inchdiameter, highstrength, solid steel core. The deep foundations for these new towers were installe

CHAPTER 5 If I Can Make If I can make it there, the song about New York goes, I can make it anywhere. For MRCE, this has meant taking the expertise gained from meeting the challenges in New York Cit

it There... Just about every city in the world with a long history has a complicated urban center in need of rebuilding. New York City is a prime example of working in a difficult urban environment, a

Friedrichstadt Passagen, Berlin, Germany MRCE designed a slurry wall for a fourstory deep basement for this mixed use development covering three city blocks in the heart of historic Berlin, Germany. F

to collaborate on an innovative piled raft foundation to reduce the potential for building tilt and settlement. Subsequent to successful completion of the building, MRCE consulted with the developer o

Sony Center, Berlin, Germany eightbuilding, multipurpose complex in Berlins equally historic Potsdamer Platz. Connected to the Center are a rail station and two underground tunnels for subway and auto

United States Embassy, Berlin, Germany As the general geotechnical consultant to the architect for the new fivestory embassy in Berlin, MRCE advised on site ground conditions and building foundations

Torre Mayor, Mexico City, Mexico lowstrength clay to a hard, dense formation below. Because Mexico City has experienced significant settlement, about onethird of an inch per year, due to extensive de

United Arab Emirates In the United Arab Emirates, MRCE has worked on numerous projects including The Palms, a famous resort in the shape of a palm tree and so large that it can be seen from satellites

Changi Water Treatment Plant, Singapore MRCE has also worked closely with New York Citybased design teams led by Swanke Hayden Connell and Frank Williams Architects on two towers within the Moscows ci

Petroterminal de Panama, Chiriqui Grande, Panama As with many of its overseas projects, MRCEs 30 years of work in Panama began with a stateside client who needed the firms expertise in another area of

CHAPTER 6 Means and Methods Means and Methods are at the heart of what we do for our clients providing the most economic way of completing their foundations and other structures, asserts partner Dave

The American Institute of Architects uses the term Means and Methods to describe those construction procedures that are the responsibility of the contractor. Often the engineer does not provide drawin

Study Area 7, Jersey City, NJ MRCE was the Engineer of Record for an excavation of one million cubic yards of contaminated ground and its replacement with controlled clean fill for an urban waterfront

A 34acre Honeywell site in New Jersey known as Study Area 7 presented an unusual opportunity for MRCE to provide the means and methods of a complicated cleanup project in order to meet a court mandate

four years. The waste was transferred to railcars and later was transported to Idaho, which has a superior geological configuration and low annual rainfall ideal for waste storage. Remediation was co

63rd Street Connector, Queens, NY MRCE provided extensive geotechnical and structural engineering services on four contracts for this largescale project that connected the 63rd Street subway Q Line to

NJDOT Route 52 Causeway Reconstruction, Ocean City, NJ be designed around construction could not disturb the surface at Battery Park, and the trains would have to keep running while construction was

New South Ferry Terminal, New York, NY Existing Northbound Train Temporary Utility Supports Fill Sand Secant Pile Wall Till Rock Anchor New Tunnel New Mezzanine Pipe Strut Bracing Existing Tunnel 1

CHAPTER 7 BRIDGES TO EVERYWHERE Bridges are not only critical links in our highway and transportation systems, but many are also iconic structures that reflect architectural visions. Unlike abovegro

Woodrow Wilson Bridge, Washington, DC MRCE served as the geotechnical and foundation engineer to the design team for this muchneeded new bridge. This team was awarded the project as the winning team

Baldwin Bridge, Old Lyme, CT Since the Moran era, MRCE has been involved in the design of bridge foundations and continues to be in the forefront of the field today. Morans earliest patent dealt with

Thames River Bridge, Groton, CT When unexpected pier settlements were observed during a rehabilitation project, MRCE was consulted to diagnose the problem and ultimately to arrest the settlement. MRCE

Ben Franklin Bridge, Philadelphia, PA When it was constructed in 1922, the bridges 1750foot span made it the worlds longest suspension bridge, a distinction it would hold until 1929. Daniel E. Moran,

Because of MRCEs strong and longterm expertise in bridge foundations, the firm has investigated bridge failures. One of the most important was the sudden, catastrophic collapse of a 540foot bridge tha

Portal Bridge, SecaucusKearny, NJ The nearly hundredyearold Portal Bridge over the Hackensack River between Secaucus and Kearny, in the southern section of the New Jersey Meadowlands, is a bottleneck

Tappan Zee Bridge Westchester County, NY maximizing pile capacity, which resulted in significant cost and constructionschedule savings. As at Schoharie Creek, scour was a big problem. To mitigate its

CHAPTER 8 On the Waterfront Gantry Plaza State Park Queens West Development, Queens, NY 72

MRCEs practice in the waterfront and marine engineering fields, says partner David Cacoilo, has always been a natural fit since the poorest soil conditions are almost always found on the waterfront ..

Maher Shipping Terminal, Elizabeth, NJ the problems to be addressed were the aging of the waterfront infrastructure, the increased activity of marine borers that is the result of a general improvemen

Hoboken Ferry Terminal, Hoboken, NJ Located on a site used for a ferry landing since the Colonial era, the Hoboken Terminal served as an eastern terminus for the Erie Lackawanna and is the last remai

The Pier at Caesars, Atlantic City, NJ Transformation of the former Million Dollar Pier into The Pier at Caesars required complex and coordinated engineering by the design team that was challenged by

Equally challenging for MRCE was the redevelopment of the centuryold Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City. Initially a functioning pier for fishing boats, in the 1980s it was repurposed as a shopping

Hudson River Park, Manhattan, NY MRCEs work on Hudson River Park, the largest park in Manhattan since the construction of Central Park, has recently included the Chelsea Piers Segment 5 Piers 62, 63,

the strips of land between the West Side Highway and the Hudson River for recreational purposes. MRCE, already serving as the general geotechnical engineer for the highway reconstruction, also became

Metro Machine Shipyard, Norfolk, VA This venerable floating drydock facility had been servicing all sorts of Navy ships for decades but was in need of a reconfiguration so it could handle modern vess

Coastal areas are unique and possess a variety of natural, recreational, commercial, ecological, cultural, aesthetic and energy resources of great significance. But many of these areas are underutiliz

One of MRCEs longestrunning involvements along the waterfront is with Battery Park City in Manhattan. Since its inception in the 1970s, four generations of MRCE partners have worked on various aspects

Battery Park City, Manhattan, NY In 2010, the Battery Park City development is almost complete and MRCE has performed marine and foundation engineering services on a majority of the structures. MRCEs

CHAPTER 9 Tunnels Dams Many MRCE projects involve revamping and upgrading Americas infrastructure and are undertaken for public authorities, municipalities and for utility companies that are private

Tunnels and Shafts MRCEs tunneling and shaft projects draw on the firms extensive knowledge of soils and geology and of cuttingedge techniques for working beneath the surface. Our tunnel projects have

Con Edison Willis Avenue Bridge HDD Crossing, Manhattan, NY river and the mostly horizontal tunnel underneath, and helped to inspect the construction. During the construction phase, the many abovegro

Village. The owners original design called for an open cut trench, but at MRCEs recommendation this was rejected for many reasons, including the fact that an open trench could have damaged other utili

Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, NJ Excavator with rotary cutterhead removes the existing brick lining to provide greater clearance for trains. Inset photo shows the installation of the new lining. 88

MRCE is also working on designs to rehabilitate and retrofit existing tunnels for modern day requirements. Conrail, the freight rail company and its owners CSX and Norfolk Southern, needed to raise th

Newark Elizabeth Rail Link, Newark, NJ MRCE had used this technique in 1988 in a similar Conrail tunnel that runs directly under the parade grounds at the West Point Military Academy. When completed

PATH Exchange Place, Jersey City, NJ Serving as the geotechnical and foundation engineers for the rehabilitation and enlargement of this underground PATH station, MRCE designed a slurry wall to encaps

PATH Morton Street Shaft Manhattan, NY Among MRCEs tasks in the NJT project was providing design services for underground connections to the PATH systems. The Port Authority of New York and New Jerse

Outfalls Most big city sewage systems in the continental United States have a secondary treatment plant to reduce the wastes before they are pumped into rivers or oceans. However, at a treatment plant

Cross River Dam, Westchester County, NY MRCE designed and prepared working drawings for a cofferdam for a replacement spillway structure on existing reservoir, modifying the original design concept to

Dams In projects that took several decades, an environmental engineering firm and longterm MRCE client was commissioned to work on five dams in North Carolina. In the early years of these projects, Ji

CHAPTER 10 Stateoftheart Part of MRCEs ability to thrive as a firm derives from the partners continually augmented expertise with construction techniques, technologies, materials, and delivery syste

The firms current expertise on the technological forefront ranges from various methods to control water, to seismic testing and analysis, to new designs for piles and other construction materials, to

Manhattanville, Manhattan, NY Pumping tests conducted by MRCE were used to develop a groundwater model to use in selection of the foundations needed for this major university campus expansion. Constru

CalPERS Headquarters Expansion, Sacramento, CA The new California Public Employees Retirement System CalPERS headquarters in downtown Sacramento was constructed on a twocityblock site that posed sever

Four Seasons Hotel and Legg Mason Headquarters, Baltimore, MD Forty miles north of Washington DC, MRCE had to tackle another difficult but quite different water control project. Among the most challen

Belleville Hydroelectric, Belleville, WV supported on pile or spread foundations. To evaluate the dewatering methods to be used, MRCE designed and performed pumping tests on the site, and, with the da

Paerdegat Basin CSO, Brooklyn, NY MRCE designed a slurry wall cutoff system for a water quality facility, which stores stormwater runoff. At a depth of 200 feet, it is the deepest slurry wall in the

DC Convention Center, Washington, DC The Washington, DC Convention Center, which encompasses fiveandahalf city blocks with two of those blocks running adjacent to the Green Line subway, is one of MRCE

Russia Wharf, Boston, MA One of the most extensive uses of ground freezing ever done in the United States was designed by MRCE on the Russia Wharf project adjacent to Bostons Harbor and Fort Point Cha

Ground Freezing An early Daniel Moran project, when he was an apprentice engineer in 1889, involved the thennew technique of freezing the ground, in this instance around a mine shaft in order to facil

New Pile Types The new Pier 64, near 23rd Street on the Hudson River, was designed to extend far out into the river to the most westerly point in Hudson River Park, as well as of Manhattan itself. But

Hillview Reservoir Cover, Yonkers, NY Seismic Evaluations As design to withstand earthquakes is increasingly mandated for new construction, and retrofits are being required to incorporate earthquake

2nd Avenue Subway, Manhattan, NY MRCE is providing in conjunction with its excavation support design instrumentation and monitoring for two cutandcover excavations for a future subway station on the

Instrumentation Monitoring Especially in crowded cities, and in subsurface environments where new construction may affect nearby existing structures, monitoring during construction is imperative. MRC

Epilogue Foundations of the Future Inquisitiveness Inventiveness Integrity 110 World Trade Center Tower 1, New York, NY

At the outset of the skyscraper era, in 1910, Daniel Moran founded his small firm upon a vision of a cadre of engineers, experienced in all phases of subsurface work, who would consult to contractors

generally remained with the firm during their entire careers. Continuity and the longterm perspective are also strengthened by the firms practice of mentoring young engineers on its large projects, so

billows of steelgray bedrock, punctuated by thousands of beachsmooth cobblestones in a muted rainbow of reds and purples and greens has basked in sunlight this summer for the first time in millennia.

PhotographyIllustration Credits Foreword Nicholson Construction Company Page 11 Aerial, Intervision New Media Page 14 Bob Vale, Graphic Word Page 18 Bob Vale, Graphic Word Page 28 Background, Andreas

Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers 14 Penn Plaza 225 West 34th Street New York, NY 101220002 Telephone 9173399300